Comment on Data Sources
The research was carried out using publicly available sources, including
- government websites, reports, and publications, including national government line ministries and government contracting agencies;
- annual reports of national government line ministries and government contracting agencies;
- applicable laws and regulations (where regulations were available only in the local language, unofficial translations were used);
- websites and annual reports of sector regulators;
- Asian Development Bank (ADB) reports and publications;
- online publications, including online databases of other multilateral development agencies;
- industry publications and databases such as Inframation News and IJGlobal Project Finance & Infrastructure Journal;
- publications and websites of reputable consultancy companies and law firms; and
- other publicly available reports, publications, and documents from authentic and globally acceptable sources.
Some of the widely used databases included
- World Bank Private Participation in Infrastructure (PPI) Database, https://ppi.worldbank.org/en/ppi;
- Inframation database https://www.inframationnews.com/;
- IJGlobal database, https://ijglobal.com/;
- PPP Knowledge Lab, https://pppknowledgelab.org/;
- Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) Infrascope Index, https://infrascope.eiu.com/;
- Global Infrastructure Hub, https://www.gihub.org/;
- Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), https://www.oecd.org/;
- TheGlobalEconomy.com, https://www.theglobaleconomy.com/;
- International Monetary Fund (IMF), https://data.imf.org/?sk=388dfa60-1d26-4ade-b505-a05a558d9a42;
- Doing Business, https://www.doingbusiness.org/;
- World Bank Public-Private-Partnership Legal Resource Center, https://ppp.worldbank.org/public-private-partnership/;
- World Economic Forum, The Global Competitiveness Report, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_TheGlobalCompetitivenessReport2019.pdf ;
- Global Infrastructure Outlook, https://outlook.gihub.org/; and
- Trading Economics, https://tradingeconomics.com/.
In addition, the research has been informed by internal knowledge of CRISIL Infrastructure Advisory based on various ongoing and completed PPP consultancy assignments in select developing member countries (DMCs), ADB team from the Office of Public–Private Partnerships (OPPP) and the ADB resident missions for the DMCs, public sector officials associated with PPPs from the DMCs, consultants to ADB resident missions and various government agencies in the DMCs, and contributing legal companies and commercial banks.
It should be noted that, as the research relied primarily on information reported in public sources that have not been verified by the authors and may not be accurate or contain all the required information, there is the risk of inaccuracy and incompleteness, depending on the reliability of sources and the validity of the information used.
For quantitative indicators relating to the number of projects, where there were gaps the total number of cases has been reported based on the limited information available. Therefore, reported numbers of projects in this publication may be an underestimate or overestimate the actual numbers.
Further, for various indicators, this website captures information based on the provisions of the laws, regulations, policies, and government publications associated with the PPP legal, regulatory, policy, and institutional frameworks in the country. This website does not provide details on the existing status regarding the adoption or application of such PPP laws, regulations, and policies, and the existing challenges being faced in such applications.